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Title :水田転換畑におけるモミ殻施用がエダマメの生育,収量および品質に与える効果
Title alternative :Effect of Rice Hull Application on Vegetable Soybean Growth, Yield and Quality in Upland Field Converted from a Paddy Field
Authors :高橋, 能彦
佐藤, 孝
星野, 卓
土田, 徹
大山, 卓爾
Publisher :日本土壌肥料学会
Issue Date :Dec-2000
Journal Title :日本土壌肥料學雜誌
Volume :71
Issue :6
Start Page :801
End Page :808
ISSN :0029-0610
Abstract :1)粘土質水田転換畑において高収益野菜の栽培を促進するため,モミ殻を施用して土壌物理性の改善を試みた.モミ殻はC/N比が高く,施用後に生じる窒素飢餓を回避できる作目としてエダマメを栽培した.2)土壌の室内培養試験の結果,対照区と比較してモミ殻施用1年目ではモミ殻2kgm^-2施用で20mg Nkg^-1,4kgm^-2では4mg Nkg^-1,モミ殻施用後 2年目でもそれぞれ8mg, 22mg Nkg^-1の無機態窒索の取り込みが認められた.3)モミ殻による生育阻害は概ね基肥窒素5gm^-2の施用で改善できたがモミ殻を4kgm^-2施用した場合はさらに増施する必要があった.4)立毛中の土壌やエダマメ導管液の窒素組成を分析し,モミ殻を施用した区では土壌のアンモニア-N/硝酸-Nの比率が高くなり導管液の硝酸-Nの量も低下する傾向を認めた.モミ殻施用区では導管液のウレイド-Nが多く,根粒の窒素固定が活性化する傾向があった.5)モミ殻施用区では対照区より増収する傾向があリ,特に基肥を増施した場合は増収する場合が多かった.増収の要因は節当りの着莢数の増加等であり,これは開花期から着莢期頃の窒索固定の活性化と関係があることが推察された.6)食味関連成分である糖や遊離アミノ酸含有量についてはモミ殻や基肥窒素の施用量と一定の関係は認められなかったがモミ殻を大量施用して明らかに栄養生長量が抑制されて減収する場合は食味も低下した.以上,モミ殻を施用した転換畑のエダマメ裁培において,モミ殻施用はエダマメの窒素固定活性を向上させ,増収する効果があった.更にモミ殻による施肥窒素の取り込みは基肥窒素の増施で対応できた.
We tried to improve the soil physical conditions of a clayey upland field converted from a drained paddy field by the application of rice hulls. Nitrogen starvation occurred with rice hull application due to the high C/N ratio. Vegetable soybean is able to grow under N starvation conditions because of N_2 fixing activity. Rice hulls (2kg m^<-2> or 4 kg m^<-2>) were applied in 1997, and vegetable soybean was cultivated in 1997 and 1998. 1) As a result of a soil incubation examination, in the first year, 20 mg N kg^<-1> and 48 mg N kg^<-1> were immobilized with rice hull treatments of 2 kg m^<-2> and 4 kg m^<-2>, respectively. In the second year, 8 mg N kg^<-1> and 22 mg N kg^<-1> were immobilized. 2) With the immobilization of N in the rice hull treatment of 2 kg m^<-2>, it was possible to correspond by increasing the amount of fertilizer-N (3 g m^<-2>). However, in the 4 kg m^<-2> rice hull application treatment, fertilizer-N must be increased more. 3) Analysis of the field soil and bleeding xylem sap indicated that the soil NH_<4->N/NO_<3->N ratio was high, while the NO_<3->N amount was low in the xylem sap from the rice hull plot. A large quantity of ureide-N in xylem sap was detected in the plants of the rice hull plot, which suggests the promotion of N_2 fixation in rice hull treatment. 4) The rice hull treatment increased the yield more than conventional treatment. Especially, when basal fertilizer-N was increased, the degree of yield increase became high. The yield increase was due to an increase in the number of pods per node. The factor was related to N_2 fixation activity during the flowering stage. 5) The sugar and free amino acid concentrations in the seed, which are related to taste, didn't have a consistent relationship between the rice hull and fertilizer-N treatments. But it was clear that when vegetative growth was suppressed and yield decreased, the taste became bad. In conclusion, rice hull application affected the growth and yield of vegetable soybean. The problem of nitrogen starvation after the rice hull application could be alleviated by increasing fertilizer-N. Moreover, the rice hull treatment increased the N_2 fixation activity of root nodules and increased the yield.
Keywords :エダマメ
rice hull
root nodule
rotational upland field
vegetable soybean
Type Local :学術雑誌論文
Language :jpn
Format :application/pdf
URI :http://hdl.handle.net/10191/23751
fullTextURL :http://dspace.lib.niigata-u.ac.jp/dspace/bitstream/10191/23751/1/110001747061.pdf
Relation :http://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/110001747061
Rights :一般社団法人日本土壌肥料学会
Appears in Collections:10 査読済論文 = Postprint

Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10191/23751